Electrolytes

Electrolytes: substances that when dissolved in water split apart, or dissociate, forming ions. When a substance ionizes in a solution, those ions or charges can conduct electricity.

Therefore, an electrolyte can also be said to have electrical conductive properties.

But not all electrolytes are created equally! They can be classified as strong or weak electrolytes, depending on how well they conduct electricity.

Strong Electrolytes:

  • Ionize 100%, therefore generating the maximum amount of ions
  • Conduct electricity very well
  • Types of Compounds: soluble salts (ionic compounds made of a metal—or ammonia NH4 – and nonmetal) and strong acids and bases.
  • Examples: NaCl, MgCl2, HCl, NaOH, NH4Cl
  • Chemical Equation: unidirectional, non-reversible

NaCl-Electrolyte

Weak Electrolytes:

  • Only partially ionize (<<<100%), therefore creating fewer ions and not as many charges
  • Poor electrical conductors
  • Type of Compounds: weak acids and bases, molecular compounds
  • Examples: HF, NH3, NH4+, H3PO4, CH3COOH
  • Chemical Equation: bidirectional, reversible (so ions can rejoin and reform molecule)

Weak-Electrolytes

Non-Electrolytes:

  • Do not ionize; generate no ions
  • No electrical conduction
  • Type of Compounds: alcohols (contain OH, names end in “ol”), sugars (CH2O type formula, names end in “ose”), biological compounds.
  • Examples: C6H12O6 (glucose), C2H5OH (ethanol), CO(NH2)2 (urea)

Non-Electrolytes

Light-Bulbs

Table of Strong Acids and Bases:

Strong-Acids-and-Bases

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